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Sufficient database security prevents data from being lost or compromised, which may have serious ramifications for the company both in terms of finances and reputation. In terms of finances and reputation, database security helps companies block attacks, including ransomware and breached firewalls, which in turn keeps sensitive information safe.
After the 2017 data breaches, we are mainly interested in a Database Firewall & Data/File Activity Monitoring. Our industry deals with SSAE-18 SOC logical access compliance rules, and GDPR Article 32 data privacy/protection legislation. I am mostly interested whether the vendor provides security updates, and has roll-back features. Data Masking & Row & Table based Database Encryption. Automated data classification for databases with with changing data models. With GDPR in mind I want agents that can intercept the traffic after DIME decryption and before data processing.
Database activity monitoring
User and application audit
Tracking user account changes
Tracking system activities (monitoring sys and admin users)
A lot will depend on the types of DB, the number of servers and whether you are looking for just compliance or true security. There are really only three vendors in the space:
Oracle Audit Vault which is ok for basic compliance auditing in small Oracle-only environments.
These last two have some significant differences, but I work for Imperva so in fairness, I will just say real-time database security at scale is different than compliance done on a post-event basis.
You should also consider user accounts and how you can monitor their database activity on a per account basis. This will tell you a lot about where you can close excess privilege gaps, peer groups and who within the group may be doing funky things. It is a great way to detect compromised accounts and abuse of service or privileged accounts.
Another man said this a long time ago: "A man's got to know his limitations".
The key starting point is to know your current configuration and all it's weaknesses.
Compliance and DB auditing.
DB masking and protection